Nama : Fitrian Imaduddin, Jurusan Dakwah, Semester IV
NIM : 2007.11.013
History and Tafsir Development
The etymology commentary may mean: الايضاح والبيان (explanation), الكشف (disclosure) and كشف المراد عن اللفظ المشكل (explaining that the word blind). 1 As for the terminology of the commentary is an explanation Kalamullah or explain lafadz-lafadz al-Qur’an and understanding. 2
Science is the science of tafsir the most glorious and most high position, because pembahasannya associated with Kalamullah and that is an indication of the pembeda Haq and falsehood. Science commentary has been known since the times of Prophet and developed until now in this modern era. The development of the science of tafsir is divided into four periods, namely:
First, Tafsir At Zaman Nabi.
Al-Qur’an was revealed with the Arabic language so that the majority of the Arabs understand the meaning of the verses of al-Qur’an. So many of them embraced Islam after hearing reading al-Qur’an and find out the truth. But does not know the meaning of all of the al-Qur’an, the one with the other is vary in content and understand the contents of al-Qur’an. As most people know the meaning of al-Qur’an, He always provides an explanation to the friend, as God’s word, “intelligence (mu’jizat) and book-kitab. And We sent down to al-Qur’an, so that you explain to mankind what has been revealed to them that they have, (QS. 16:44). For example diriwayatkan the hadith of Muslim Uqbah bin ‘Amir said: “I heard the Messenger of Allah berkhutbah over the pulpit to read the word of God:
وأعدوا لهم ما استطعتم من قوة
He then said: ألا إن القوة الرمي
Also the hadith Anas diriwayatkan Bukhori and Muslim Prophet said about al-Kautsar is the river that God promised to me (later) in heaven.
In the commentary The Periode of Shohabat
The method of interpreting the Qur’an are interpreted with the Al-Qur’an Al-Qur’an, Al-interprets Koran with the Sunna Prophet, or the ability of language, customs what they hear from the People of the Book (Jews and Nasroni) who embraced Islam and has good keislamannya.
Among the leaders mufassir at this time is: Khulafaurrasyidin (Abu Bakr, Umar, Utsman, Ali), Abdullah bin Abbas, Abdullah bin Mas’ud, ubay bin Ka’ab, Zaid bin Tsabit, Abdullah bin Al-Zubair and Aisyah. However, most of them are interpreted Ali bin Abi Tholib, Abdullah bin Mas’ud and ‘Abdullah bin Abbas that he’s getting do’a.
Interpretation shahabat He obtained from the same position with hadist marfu ‘. 3 or less is most Mauquf. 4
In the commentary Tabi’in Zaman
Method used in the treatment period is not far different from the friends, because the commentary tabi’in take from them. In this period show some madrasah studies to science commentary are:
1) – Makkah or Madrasah Madrasah Ibn Abbas that the birth mufassir such as Mujahid bin Jubair, Said bin Jubair, Ikrimah Maula Ibn Abbas, Al-Towus and Yamany ‘Atho’ bin Abi Robah.
2) – Medina or Madrasah Madrasah ubay bin Ka’ab, which resulted in a commentary such as specialist Zaid bin Aslam, Abu Al-‘Aliyah and Ka’ab bin Muhammad Al-Qurodli. And 3) – Iraq or Madrasah Madrasah Ibn Mas’ud, among students is the famous Al-Qomah bin Qois, Hasan Al-Basry and Qotadah bin Di’amah As-Sadusy.